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The traditional Defence and Security Week where service Chiefs come to deliver lectures and interact with the Participants of the Senior Executive Course has commenced in the National Institute from 28th August to 8th September, 2017.

The SEC 39, 2017 version was kick-started with The Minister of Defence, who was represented by the Chief of Defence Staff, General AG Olonisakin, NAM, GSS, CMH, Psc(+) delivered a lecture on "Expansion and Consolidation of Nigeria's Military-Industrial Complex (DICON) for National Defence and Security".

In his lecture, the CDS discussed various challenges faced in equipping the Armed Forces to enhance their operational efficiency through defence acquisition for national defence and security. He gave an overview of defence industry and defence acquisition in Nigeria, lessons from other countries, policy on the development of the defence sector, challenges and prospects of investment in Military Industrial Complex (MIC) through Public Private Partnership (PPP). He reiterated the imperatives of maximising the use of STI in today's military operations and that of having an up-to-date Military Industrial Complex. At the end of the lecture the CDS proffered the way forward by way of policy options to the Federal Government to surmount the various challenges facing the Nigerian Armed Forces through the use of Science, Technology and Innovation for national defence industry. At the end of the lecture, there was a robust interactive session with the course participants of SEC 39, 2017.


Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal, Sadiq Abubakar
The Chief of Air Staff, Air Marshal, Sadiq Abubakar had his lecture on Wednesday, 30th August, 2017 in the National Institute Auditorium titled: "The Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation on National Defence and Security: The Air force Experience". The CAS highlighted major challenges in the Nigeria Air Force and how risky it is in combating terrorism using obsolete and antiquated equipment in contemporary society like Nigeria. The major thrust of his lecture hinged on the need for acquisition of modern fighter jets and other military hardware to equip the Nigerian Air Force in combat readiness at all times using science, technology and innovation.



This was followed same day by the Corps Marshall of the Federal Road Safety Corp, Oyeyemi Boboye, mni represented by the Deputy Corps Marshal, Dan Charles in a lecture titled "Science, Technology and Innovation and Nigeria' National Road Safety Strategy: Challenges and prospect in the Federal Road Safety Corps". The Corps Marshall stated that some of the major challenges facing the safety of lives on our highways include unregistered vehicles on our roads, drivers without licence, lack of roads signs, overloading of motor vehicles and violation of traffic rules and regulations. Others include over speeding, driving under the influence of drugs and alcoholism. Some of his policy recommendations include the establishment of Emergency Units on every highway nationwide to aid rescuing of accident victims as well as insisting on ensuring the strict observance of traffic rules and regulations by all road users through formulation and enforcement of adequate policy guidelines.


To underscore the importance attached to the Week, the Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Ibok Ette Ibas took time off his very busy schedule on August 29 to personally to present his paper on the "Impact of Science,

Technology and Innovation on Nigeria Maritime. According to the CNS, the topic was apt as STI cannot be overlooked in global warfare, he then harped on the importance of science and Technology as it affects Maritime Industry and how it influences the naval operation in the building of warship locally and other military hardware. He concluded that science and technology is essential to the Nigerian Navy especially in combating terrorism in maritime domain.

The declaration of public holiday brought a break in the series of lectures for the week. The rigorous lectures, discussions and reflections continued immediately after the break on Tuesday, September 5, it was the turn of Comptroller General of Customs (CGS), Col Hameed Ibrahim Ali (Rtd), who represented by Ag. Deputy Compt-General, Sule Alu deliver his own lecture on "Preventing and Control of Trafficking in Persons, Drugs and Small Arms in Nigeria and the Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation. The CGS informed the Participants that Nigeria, Ghana, Togo and Benin constitutes the active countries and source of transit of Small Arms and Light Weapons in West African sub- region. He hinted that 70% (350,000,000) of illicit arms in circulation in West African are from Nigeria as a result of insurgency and kidnapping. He opined that this could be reduced by legislating more stringent law and ensuring stricter enforcement of existing laws. Also, of great importance is the equipping of the Nigerian Customs Service since technology is continuously being integrate with human experience of life and survival.


The Comptroller General of Customs, Col Hameed Ibrahim Ali(Rtd), represented by Ag. Deputy Compt-General, Sule Alu delivered a lecture titled: "Preventing and Control of Trafficking in Persons, Drugs and Small Arms in Nigeria and the Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation". He posited in his lecture that Nigeria, Ghana, Togo and Benin constitutes the active countries and source of transit in Small Arms and Light Weapons in West African sub-region. He revealed that 70% (350,000,000) of illicit arms in circulation in West African emanates from Nigeria as a result of insurgency, kidnapping which could be reduced by legislating more stringent laws and stricter enforcement of existing laws. Also, equipping Nigerian Customs Service as technology continues to integrate with human experience of life and survival.

 Still on the same topic, Amb. Emmanuel E. Imohe, OFR, mni, The Chairman, Presidential Committee on Small Arms and Light Weapons (PRESCOM) presented his own perspective. In his lecture, Amb. Imohe hinted that Nigeria is a place for local production of small arms and light weapons within African sub-region such as revolver, pistol, rifles, light machine guns, assault rifles and other destructive and explosive materials. He stressed that the proliferation of these arms remains a serious challenge to Nigeria and several others countries in West Africa sub-region. He concluded that there must be a comprehensive national small arms and light weapons survey, with a view of controlling its influx and proliferation into the country to curb the spread of transnational organised crime.

In a similar manner, Colonel Muhammed Mustapha, Chairman/CEO, NDLEA, took it up from the drug perspective. The Chairman/CEO Col Muhammed Mustapha, who was represented by Dr. Lawrence Okpara, ACGN, Director of Training Manpower Development (DMTA) of NDLEA pointed out that Drugs and Small Arms, otherwise known as organised crimes, are criminal networks taking advantage of technology to reach larger audience. He stated that a research conducted, revealed that out of 857 million small arms and light weapons are made in Nigeria; which his organisation has recorded a seizure of a container with 440 arms and ammunition. He went further to assert that technology can be used by criminals to wage counter attack through cyber-attack and that through STI organised criminals have shown their manifest ability to adapt the use of technology to launder ill-gotten wealth which is most challenging and of negative effects of combating transnational organised crimes on the economy.

The Director-General of NAPTIP, Mrs Julie Okah-Donli, though not physically present, sent a representative, Abdulrahim Shuibu. In his lecture, he stated that organised crime manifests itself in many forms; which are the act, the means and the purpose; while drug trafficking on the other hand involves the production, smuggling, and sale of hard drugs or such substances that are prohibited by the law. He stated further that arms trafficking is known as gun running, smuggling of contraband arms. He complained that the advent of the internet and other social media are now aiding uncontrolled uploads of pornography with direct consequences of social ills such as kidnapping and high incidences of rape cases and moral decay in the society.

She revealed that through science and technology there has been breakthroughs in the areas of crime mapping, biometrics, DNA, facial and voice recognition in speech and finger prints which is crucial in conducting criminal investigation, making use of 4-group approach of: prevention, protection, prosecution and partnership as strategies in combating crime in the society. He concluded that cybercrime is a criminal activities that involves technology and prevention can only be through educational and cyber security awareness and making sure that security logs are being secured.

In continuation of the Defence Week, Wednesday 8th September, 2017 was also fully package with dignitaries from other Agencies.

The Ag. Director-General, National Intelligence Agency (NIA) Ambassador Arabi Adam Yadam who was represented by Mrs. Jadeshola Adeshola from the National Intelligence Agency (NIA) gave her lecture on titled: Responding to the Farmers and Transhuman Threats to National Security" which has continue to be source of conflict between of farmers and herdsmen on grazing on the farmland. Furthermore, she mentioned areas in which strategies can be important to Nigeria. According to her, that threats should be strategise by the national or state assemblies in passing enabling law, the Federal government should assign group of herders to a specific ranches, government should partner with private investors for the creation of zonal ranches across the country in creating a platform for engagement between the farmers and herders. She stressed the need for a table of review at the ECOWAS and the transhuman policy, creating a formal body for mediating conflict between farmers and herdsmen.

The resource person summed up her paper by recommending policy advocacy on widespread public enlightenment of the bill on ranches to scale through the National Assembly to become law which will curtail the incidences of constant clashes between herders and farmers with devastating consequences of loss of lives and properties over the years.


In the same vein, Maj-General Adamu Muhammed Jalingo,

Deputy Chief of Defence Intelligence who represented the DG, Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) spoke on the same theme, mentioned inadequate will power by security agencies particularly the Nigerian Police Force for the enforcement of the relevant provisions of the law as provided in Section 214 and 215 of the 1999 Constitution. He highlighted areas of conflicts between farmers and herders among others as stealing of agricultural products, socio­cultural dynamic challenges militating against the efforts to curb farmers and herdsmen in Nigeria. Others areas of conflicts includes, encroachment of grazing reserves and farmland, non-promulgation of a national livestock development policy, non-adoption of the community policing model, inability to convey national stakeholders conference on transhuman pastoralism.

He concluded his paper by proposing strategies that could curb farmers/herdsmen conflicts namely, resuscitation and re-demarcation of grazing reserves land, formulation of national livestock development policy, implementation of the community policing model, conveying a national stakeholders conference on transhuman pastoralism.


On the other hand, Comptroller-General Jaafaru Ahmed, Comptroller-General of Prison represented by the Deputy Controller General of Prison, Marlon Babatunde Ekundayo Shemfe spoke on "Responding to the Farmers and herders clash on Prison farms as a Threats to National Security". He revealed in his lecture that recently, tension has escalated between nomadic cattle herders and traditional crop farmers in the Central and Eastern part of the country. He explained that crop farmers produce more than 80% of the Nigerian food crops that sustain the country. He recounted the Nigerian Prison Service efforts to expose prisons inmates who are serving various sentences of post-prison life on how to reintegrate them into the society through productive life-style by learning different skills and vocations including farming.

Finally, he stressed for a lasting and workable solution to problem of farmer/herders conflict; he said there should be involvement through dialogue of stakeholders at all levels, political, state, local, traditional leaders for the restoration and lasting peaceful settlement of this intractable problem.

In continuation of the series of lectures for the Defence and Security Week, the Director-General, Department of State Security, Musa Daura, mni who was represented by Mr. Mathew B. Seiyefa, mni delivered a lecture on "Responding to Farmers/Herders and Transhuman Threat to National Security" where he revealed that the incessant crisis between herders and crop producers is basically a resource-based one being fought by various other means, thereby increasing lawlessness in the country. He identified some other factors being responsible for the escalation of this conflict as encroachment on traditional nomadic migratory routes, cultivation of traditional grazing areas, and some unintended outcomes of government policies and natural and man-made reasons. He went on to associate cattle rustling in Africa with a number of predisposing and causative factors with far-reaching effects on social relations, public safety and food security. Part of his policy recommendations include the encouragement of private participation in setting up ranches all over the country in order to promote modern pastoralism that will end the perennial threat of farmers and herders conflict as a permanent solution.


In the same vein, Prof. (Mrs) Lami H. Lombin, MFR, Dean, Faulty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Jos in her lecture titled: "Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation on Agricultural Production and the Global Health Security Agenda: Policy Options and Strategies for Nigeria" stated that ecological acceptance of expansion of arable land is no longer possible to support the ever-growing human and animal production and increased production of agricultural raw materials for industries. She advocated features of policy to include the promotion of agro- allied industries, agriculture and technology, enhancing agricultural productivity through cultivation of improved crop varieties and breeds of livestock and fisheries. Others to include encouraging agricultural waste management and utilisation product delivery policy, cost of large-scale production, price regulation and registration, the formulation of several strategies for food accessibility, hence the need for strong policy advocacy and collaboration between researchers and end-users. According to her, the Global Health Security Agency is saddled with the responsibility to prevent, detect and respond to outbreak of infectious diseases that are transferred from animal to human called (zoonotic diseases). She hinted that Nigeria has already adopted bio-security framework and currently has two such laboratories with biosafety which is level 3, and reiterated that a functioning clinical laboratory network is an indispensable part of the health system, for timely diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment response which is essential component of global health security. She closed the lecture by emphasising that the global health security are two way interaction between agriculture and health. To her, agriculture affects health, health in turn affects agricultural productivity of a country, hence the imperative need for effective national surveillance and response system for the achievement of global best practices through application of STI.


The long but eventful week was concluded by the Inspector- General of Police, Ibrahim Kotum Idris, mni, who, represented by the AIG, Sani Mohammed, mni, while giving the perspective of the Nigerian Police Force noted that the search of how to cope with the increasing crime waves through application of STI has led to sophisticated technological innovation that has improved the detection and prevention of crime in Nigeria. He pointed out that Police surveillance activities are justified by its influence in preventing crime by using the closed Circuit Television in restricted areas, public places, government offices, shopping malls and market places, as well as worship centres. He further stated that, in order to enhance police operations, the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) which is a set of tools for collecting stories, retrieving, analysing and detecting crime scenes becomes indispensable during investigations. He added that other useful devices such as network analyser used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspects and the use of biometrics in analysing of criminal incidences.

In all, the very successful security and defence week which eventually lasted for two weeks played host to the Minister of Defence, Service Chiefs and other Heads of the Para-military Agencies and brainstormed on the importance and the use of STI in the National Defence and Security of Nigeria.

Written by Esla Samuel

Protocol & Public Relations Dept.